Tag Archives: Tiree Array

Regarding The Array

letters to editor

I am writing this to express my concern at the way in which the proposed Tiree Array is being forced through the consenting process. It alarms me that Scottish Power Renewables want to get consent to develop their project before they actually release the details of what they are planning. I find it hard to believe that they have got as far as they have with their research and planning without being able to give us the least bit of information on what they are going to do. The “Argyll Array Project Update No8-May 2011” only reinforces the point that they are intent in keeping us in the dark until they get consent.

I find it strange that the government would even consider giving them consent without having detailed plans from them. How can individuals, group etc make any sort of informed decision without even the most basic facts. I have spoken to a lot of people who are undecided about the project and will make their minds up when they have some more facts. The harsh reality is that there will be no facts until Scottish Power Renewables have got their consent and by that time your views will count for nada. The time to make your mind up is now before it is too late, and in light of the fact that they are not disclosing any information you have to say no. It is up to us to force the hand of this huge multinational company by saying no now and force them to come clean as to what they have got planned.

When you look at the groups that make up the master planning process you have to question some of the motives and who is actually going to be there to look after the interests of Tiree and surrounding areas. It is obvious how SPR want the planning to go, least amount of cost and hassle to them. Highlands and Islands Enterprise have poured millions and millions of pounds into the turbine factory in Campbelltown. Argyll and Bute council have invested a reported £12 million into Campelltown harbour to make the turbine factory. The Crown Estates are the body that will be taking the money for effectively renting out the sea bed to the developer and are set to make millions from wind farms.

Scottish Natural Heritage have indicated in a document on offshore wind farms that they believe wind farms should be at least 35km offshore to reduce the visual impact on Scotland’s pristine seascapes, however SPR and other developers have ignored this advise and carry on regardless. So that leaves the Trust to represent the views of the people of Tiree. No disrespect to the Trust but in light of the bodies they are up against their voice will be lost at the negotiating table.

I would be very grateful if SPR could clarify what the possible implications of the Argyll Array would be on public services. In earlier scoping documents they stated that they did not intend to invest any money in schools, medical facilities or roads on Tiree as this was the responsibilty of local government. So would it be fair to assume therefore that the Array will have a negitive effect on public services?

It has also been reported that if SPR were forced into paying a levy on generated power this money would by default be paid to Argyll and Bute council. How much of this money would filter its way down to public services on Tiree and how much get swallowed up by A+B’s budget deficit? It would be very helpful if SPR could clear up this issue before any more rumours start.

Now is the time to say no. If we wait for any clear facts and information from SPR until we take a stance it will be far too late. Until they have set promises in stone we as a community have to say no. If the Array is going to go ahead we can only maximise any compensation by fighting. Remember there is a big difference between compensation and benefit and until SPR can prove otherwise this development is not going to bring any benefits to the island.

Adam Milne, Crossapol, Tiree


Hannah Brimelow’s recent letter about the Tiree Array offers wise advice from someone who knows at first hand how things work in the world of high finance and giant corporations.

As she points out, while the island is mulling over promises from Iberdrola, there are deals being done and consents being pursued. Once consent is granted, there will be no practical way to stop the developers from ditching those promises and riding roughshod over the island’s wishes.

So the message from Hannah is that there is effectively only one way for Tiree to have any control or influence over what will happen to it, and that is by coming out in opposition to the granting of consent. Without that opposition the island has no worthwhile authority to make demands.

Whether for or against the Array, I expect most of us would want to force Iberdrola to put the island’s best interests up there alongside its own corporate profit. If we think that they are doing that already, I fear we may be mistaken.

Peter Isdell-Carpenter, Milton.


Dear ma’am
The No Tiree Array (NTA ) Group is formalising its membership, and has drawn up its Constitution. This is essential to take NTA forward as a consultee within the Licensing and Consenting Process. For full details go to www.no-tiree-array.org.uk , then click on “Constitution” in the main Menu.

The membership donation is £1.00 . To make this donation via the website simply click on the ” Paypal Donation ” button, and follow the instructions. You do not require a PayPal account to process this payment.

For those without internet access and/or would prefer to make a donation by cheque then please do so by making your cheque payable to:- No Tiree Array and send it to me at the address below.

NTA has a provision in the Constitution for “sympathisers ” who for all sort of reasons may not wish to become a member but wish to register their support. NTA requests that where there is more than one potential member in the same household, that they make separate donations. That way NTA will be able to keep an accurate membership list.

NTA has, to date, been funded by its founding core members. Your donations will , amongst other initiatives,allow NTA to produce a quarterly newsletter, and upgrade its website. We look forward to your support of NTA .

Yours faithfully, Robert Trythall , Aird, Cornaigmore

ARGYLL ARRAY PROJECT UPDATE No 8 – May 2011

Scottish Power Renewables logo

Masterplanning

The application to Marine Scotland from ScottishPower Renewables for planning permission for the Argyll Array will deal with the plans for the offshore infrastructure and the grid connection to Dalmally. (See Update No 7) However, there are four possible ways the project could be operated and maintained. Each of these scenarios would have different implications (positive and negative) for Tiree.

As many have said over the last year or so, there’s a need to fully identify and plan for these implications. Such planning would help Tiree to fully understand the full implications of the Argyll Array. Argyll and Bute Council and the Scottish Government also need to understand the possible implications because these may have effects on public services like education, health, transport and water. The wind farm, if consented, won’t be fully operational until about 2020.

Moreover, ScottishPower Renewables would not be able to confirm which operations and maintenance scenario is viable for the project until after any consent decision. However, it is recognised that planning for the various possible scenarios needs to start now. A number of organisations, including the Tiree Community Development Trust and ScottishPower Renewables, have therefore got together to begin this process, called ‘Masterplanning’.

A Steering Group has been formed to oversee and guide the process, which will be implemented by consultants working under contract to Argyll and Bute Council. These consultants will be required to consult closely with everyone on Tiree who’s got a stake in the development in order to gather views on the full range of possible impacts. It is anticipated that the consultants will be appointed at the end of June, and they will be expected to start work on the study immediately. The Steering Group is made up of: Argyll and Bute Council, Tiree Community Development Trust, ScottishPower Renewables, Marine Scotland, Highlands and Islands Enterprise, The Crown Estate, Scottish Natural Heritage and CMAL. (CMAL is Caledonian Maritime Assets, the company which owns the vessels, piers and ports used by CalMac.)

Wind farm Visit

We’ve agreed to a request by Tiree Development Trust to postpone this month’s planned visit to North West England to view offshore wind farms in the Irish Sea. This trip will now take place after the summer.

Thank you to all the people who responded to my invitation to express an interest in going on the trip. Those people will be contacted again over the summer, as plans for the trip are finalised. Full details of the visit itself will be in An Tirisdeach after our return.

Careers Workshop

One of the most frequent points of discussion about the project is the possible impact on job prospects were the Argyll Array to be given planning permission and then proceed to construction and operation. There are obviously no hard and fast proposals in place yet; indeed the Masterplanning process is only just beginning. However, to give some general information on this subject, we will be holding a Careers Workshop on Tiree immediately after the summer holiday.

It will be useful for a wide range of people – those at the very start of career planning, but also those at the start of their working lives and those in mid career. It will hopefully be of interest to people planning future study, people planning to stay on Tiree to work or those hoping to return home.

It will outline the kinds of skills needed for those involved in building and running a large offshore wind farm. We hope to be able to discuss the whole range of skills-professional, technical, administrative, trade and manual. We also hope to put this in the context of the approximate time-scales for the development of the project if it goes ahead. We will not, however, be able to indicate how many specific jobs will be created on Tiree in the event of the project going ahead, as this is not yet known.

The purpose of the event is to give a general overview of career opportunities in offshore wind and to enable those looking to the future to be able to include offshore wind farm work in their options. This is intended to be the first of a series of information events in Tiree about offshore wind farms in general and the rest will get underway in the autumn of this year. Meanwhile details of the date and venue of the Careers event will be in one of the summer Updates.

Future updates

· More on the Masterplanning process

Questions or comments

If anyone has any questions or comments on any of the above, or indeed any aspect of the project, please contact me at –

Donnie Campbell, ScottishPower Renewables Community Liaison Officer, Machair, Kilmoluaig in the first instance.

My land line telephone number is 220 352, mobile number 07881 983 753 and email donnie@argyllarray.com

ARGYLL ARRAY PROJECT UPDATE No.6-APRIL 2011

Scottish Power Renewables logo

Community Information Day

The ScottishPower Renewables Community information Day will be held on Tuesday 28th June in An Talla. The Project Team will be available to give information and hear your views between 2.00pm and 6.30pm with refreshments available.

The Project Team will be joined by a number of specialists from Scottish Power Renewables who will be able to give some background on their particular areas of responsibility.

The first photomontages showing what the wind farm could look like from various points on the island will also be available on the day and will be left for public display on the island. More details about the Information Day will be available closer to the time.

Website Update

A major update to our Argyll Array website is coming soon.

This will carry all the updates that appear in An Tirisdeach but will also be able to carry items that are too detailed or too big for the newsletter. It will enable anyone wanting background to the project or the latest news to access it 24 hours a day, from anywhere in the world. The website address is www.argyllarray.com

An Tirisdeach will still be where all the latest news is published first but the website will be a useful addition to that.

Unfortunately, not everyone on Tiree has access to the internet so if anyone would wish paper copies of the website updates, please contact Donnie Campbell.

Marine Scotland

  • Marine Scotland has been referred to many times since the Project was announced but many are still not sure what the organisation is or what it has to do with the Project.
  • Marine Scotland is a new department of the Scottish Government, set up two years ago. It was made up from a number of smaller bodies with responsibility for the sea and brings them all together under the one department. Many marine matters have effects on each other, such as fishing, the environment, oil and gas developments and wind, wave or tidal power. Marine Scotland was created as the single body that understands all these matters and which can plan and oversee the way Scotland’s seas are used.
  • It resulted from a combination of the government Marine Department, the Fisheries Research Services and the Scottish Fisheries Protection Agency. An important part of Marine Scotland’s work is Fishery Protection and it has three ocean-going protection vessels and two aircraft for this job. One of its offices is in Cameron House in Oban and its vessels and aircraft can be seen regularly around Tiree.
  • Another important part of its work is giving permission for wind farm developments. It deals with planning matters at sea, while Argyll and Bute Council Planning Department deals with developments on land.
  • Marine Scotland looked at the Argyll Array project when it drew up the national plan for wind power developments which was published a few months ago. As part of the consultation on that plan, officials visited Tiree twice over last autumn and winter to gather people’s views. (Read more about this national plan on our updated website.)
  • Officials from Marine Scotland will consider the full planning application for the Argyll Array when it is submitted in 2012 and are likely to take a year or so to decide on the application after receiving it. They will either refuse it, grant it as it stands or grant it with conditions attached.
  • There will be a link from our website to the relevant part of Marine Scotland’s website

Met Mast

ScottishPower Renewables is seeking to erect an onshore meteorological mast to measure wind speed.

The type of mast would be similar to the one erected before the community wind turbine was built. It would be just over 70m in height and would be expected to be in place for up to five years. ScottishPower Renewables is in the process of identifying technically appropriate sites, and will contact owners/occupiers soon.

As well as an agreement with the occupier, ScottishPower Renewables will have to apply for planning permission to Argyll and Bute Council. Further details of the proposed mast will be available then. If permission is granted for the mast, tenders can then be issued for its construction and maintenance.

It is hoped that the mast will be in place by the end of the year.

Thank you

Morna Cannon, Assistant Project Manager, visited Tiree earlier in the month for a formal meeting but also took the opportunity to meet a number of people informally over the two days, to discuss the project and hear people’s views.

Thank you to all who took the time to speak with her and for their kind welcome and hospitality.

Future Updates

  • More information on the wind farm planning permission process
  • Information on a planned offshore wind farm visit
  • Information on a Careers Workshop to be held soon
  • An update on the appointment of an Environmental Impact Assessment consultant

Questions or comments

If anyone has any questions or comments on any of the above, or indeed any aspect of the project, please contact Donnie Campbell, Machair, Kilmoluaig in the first instance. Donnie’s land line telephone number is 220 352, mobile number 07881 983 753 and email donnie{@}argyllarray.com

Artistic Turbines

letters to editor

Thank you Robert Trythall

At last a visualisation of the proposed wind farm from Sandaig. I love wind farms and believe it would be good to have our very own environmentally friendly outdoor art installation, which would also provide renewable energy.

The turbines remind me of work by famous artists such as Anthony Gormley, Giacometti and Tinguely. They are quite beautiful. I wish we could consider a more detailed visualisation with coloured turbine blades e.g. pink (as in Sweden) or shiny/sparkly to prevent harm to birds.

The nuclear disaster in Japan should be a reminder that more renewables are now necessary. They are the only alternatives and the argument ‘not in my back yard’ is not acceptable. Any argument against wind farms pales compared with nuclear installations.

Ulrike Rawson

Questions About Array

letters to editorDear Sir,
I have been reading with concern about the Tiree Array and as a visitor to Tiree for the past twenty years I hope you
do not mind if I use An Tirisdeach to ask a few questions as I am now more confused than before with more
questions than answers so would welcome any and all comments to a few simple questions.
Firstly on the subject of vested interests in this project I can understand how this project primarily benefits a Spanish
developer, Scottish Power Renewables, and the Crown Estates but I am not certain I understand whom else are
beneficiaries as the one extremely important group that under current legislation have absolutely no entitlement to
any compensation or any rights whatsoever are the good people of Tiree.
2 What measures are planned to protect the people and heritage of Tiree from the inevitable human impact on its
fragile Island community and heritage, exactly how many people will be moving to the Island and will they bring
children for the school and new permanent residents or is it proposed that there is just a fleet of transitory migrant
workers to build and maintain the wind farm. Will MacLeod’ s have a new Polish food section as does our local
Tesco’ s to accommodate the islands’ new guests.
3 Transport is always an issue in the islands and Cal-Mac often struggles to service the people and businesses of
Tiree as it is, so how will Cal-Mac cope with the hugely increased demands for freight and people for the new Array.
Will they build a new ferry, build better facilities or inevitably just struggle on with more delays, cancellations and
problems for the beleaguered residents, businesses and visitors of Tiree. How will the roads cope with the huge
increase in demand, or can I assume of course that Argyll council is ready, willing and just waiting to repair, restore
and rebuild the islands’ roads, very much as they do today.
4 If the Tiree Trust is the definitive representative voice of the whole island community I am not certain I
understand why full trust membership is limited to only full time residents, surely all those that own land on the Island
including holiday home owners who have a large financial stake on the Island should also be allowed some level of
representation?
5 As the development is deemed offshore, the people of Tiree apparently absolutely have no right to be consulted,
have absolutely no right to any compensation and are thus entirely reliant on the goodwill of a Spanish developer
and any promises of the Scottish Government to protect the interests and future of the Island and its people. I can
find no comments online from SEPA or SNH, the two institutions whose apparent primary function is to protect and
look out for fragile environments and communities like Tiree. Nor can I find any comment from the Duchy of Cornwall
whose leader has been very vocal previously about onshore wind farm developments.
The Tiree Trust and other groups are working hard and doing a great job to highlight individual issues and keep
everybody informed but might it be time for a local referendum of all concerned people including residents, nonresident
landowners and even the greater readership of An Tirisdeach to establish the wishes and concerns of the
people and friends of Tiree.
6 Whilst I fully support renewable energy, the question is at what cost. Tiree fishermen will lose significant fishing
grounds, Crofters disruption to their livestock and grazings, Visitors will hardly want to stay at Turbine View and if
history is correct the developers will bypass the local businesses to use national hauliers and suppliers, and
islanders with have to compete for jobs with the partners of the temporary residents.
7 – What will be the legacy of this project as it only has a proposed working life of some twenty years and
notwithstanding the damage to the community and heritage of Tiree will the island and the seas around Tiree be
littered with post wind farm wrecks, derelict buildings and general debris to add to the visually highly attractive legacy
of the last transitory residents from the last war.
Finally I would like to remind everybody that this is an election year so until the 5th May is the only time if you are
very lucky you might just get an MSP to talk to or listen to you, though good luck on that one.
Angus Barlas

Concerns Over Tiree Array Survey

letters to editor

Dear Sir – Confusion over SPR’s “flawed” Tiree Survey

The recent questionnaire that was completed by many islanders and others has come in for heavy criticism. No Tiree Array (NTA) has taken professional advice on Scottish Power Renewables’ (SPR) questionnaire, and the conclusion is that the questionnaire appears to be so incompetently designed that the results may be corrupted and inadmissible. The only way for SPR to find out the island’s real issues is to conduct a survey, yet the survey’s questionnaire has already decided what the issues are!

With regard to question 7, the questionnaire tries to find out what concerns people have about the Tiree Array. There appear to be serious mistakes in the way the question is asked. The list is made up of arbitrarily selected items (eg noise, impact on business, disruption from the construction) covering only 10 of the things that might matter to residents. For instance, not one of the items touches on the cultural, community, or way- of- life impacts of the project. The one item in the list that comes anywhere near to this is “potential social effects of the windfarm”, which is then explained as “e.g. newcomers to the island”! Although a space exists for “other”, (I.e. you can add an issue that is important to you but not on the list), you are only allowed to give a view on three including “other”. Suppose there are more than 3 which you are concerned about? Tough. SPR have evidently decided for themselves that these ten plus one are the issues, and that 3 is the most that anyone can have strong feelings about.

Professional researchers know that the correct way to find out what people think and feel about something is to offer them a range of responses that they can chose from. We have all received surveys at one time or another, and we are used to this sort of question: “Please tick one box to indicate how you feel about xyz”. And then the boxes are labelled something like “very happy” “quite happy” “neither happy nor unhappy” “quite unhappy” “very unhappy”. It is done so that you learn how strongly the person feels about something. The SPR survey ignores this basic rule of research. Naively, it simply asks ”What are you most concerned about? Tick a maximum of three”.

These worries about the Tiree survey have been repeatedly brought to the attention of every one of SPR’s directors. SPR have replied that “your suggestions will be incorporated into any further questionnaires”, thus effectively acknowledging their mistakes. You might think they would therefore withdraw or re-run the survey. But no such luck. We have even offered to help them with experienced research advice. Again, no luck.

The frightening possibility is that SPR see nothing wrong in collecting, publishing and relying upon allegedly corrupted and invalid data, yet SPR want us to believe that their “consultation process” is transparent, thorough and professional.

To quote from the Guidelines of UK Renewables, of which the Regulations and Markets Director of Scottish Power is the Chairman, “These methods (gathering information, opinion surveys,…questionnaires….) only gather information in response to the questions asked; they may miss opinions or concerns that are not asked about”. Why is this error so important? SPR will publish the results, not just to the islanders, but to the government, to Marine Scotland, to the media. They will presumably use the results as evidence of what matters most to local people about the Tiree Array. Depending on the results, they may even claim that only one , two or three issues are matters of concern to locals, or that “even these only mattered to x% of the respondents”. Far from gaining true insights into people’s worries – which in reality appear to be widespread, wide-ranging, and very major – they will reduce everything to a handful of items that they can then fix or smooth over. And they can quote this allegedly incompetent and invalid survey as proof that they have taken care of what we wanted.

Why should we care? This survey is not independently assessed, but is part of delivering SPR’s promised “consultation with stakeholders”. It will be used to help shape the outcome of the biggest and potentially most disastrous happening in our island’s history. Nothing questionable must be allowed to influence that outcome. We will continue to challenge SPR to be honest and professional. So watch this space.

Robert Trythall, NTA

Argyll Array Project Update #4

Scottish Power Renewables logo

General Update

We continue to work on placing a large number of contracts. We are about to kick off the process for appointing Lead Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) consultants and consultants to carry out a preliminary route evaluation for the export cable.

Last month we met with Marine Scotland and gave them a general update on the project. We agreed to meet with them again once our Lead EIA consultants are appointed, in order to discuss methodology for the range of studies on potential impacts of the project.

Interviews are currently being held for the SPR Community Liaison Officer, Tiree position. We hope to make an appointment this month. Our survey is now closed for Tiree, but is still open on Coll (as it was launched much later on Coll). We will close the Coll survey shortly and will then begin to look at results.

Careers

The Crown Estate has recently launched a brochure on careers in offshore wind. This will be an incredibly useful resource for anyone wanting to get into the industry. It outlines the various specialisms within the industry, has case studies on people who work in the sector already, and indicates the qualifications which are required for a career in offshore wind. We currently only have a limited number of hard copies, all of which we will bring to the island next week. However, the brochure can also be viewed online here:
http://www.thecrownestate.co.uk/career_in_offshore_wind_brochure.pdf

Argyll Array Project Update #3

Scottish Power Renewables logo

Please see below your regular update on the proposed Argyll Array offshore windfarm.

General Update

We continue to work on placing a large number of contracts. We recently appointed our legal advisors, and are close to awarding contracts for a call-off arrangement for bird/marine mammal survey vessels. The next contracts to be placed will be for lead environmental consultancy and technical advice. Our vessel-based bird and marine mammal surveys continue, and we have just completed an Autumn bird survey using radar.

SPR Community Liaison Officer, Tiree

The deadline for applications for this position has now passed.

We received a number of good quality applications, and are discussing these with internal colleagues. We will be in touch shortly to invite successful candidates to interview.

Survey

Since our public exhibition in September, we have been conducting a survey of island opinions on our project. A hard copy of this survey was available in issue 478 of An Tirisdeach, It can also be completed online at www.argyllarray.com If you have not already filled one in, we would encourage you to complete the survey. It is anonymous, and we will present the aggregated results in An Tirisdeach.

The postal address for surveys:
Morna Cannon, ScottishPower Renewables, 4th Floor, 1 Atlantic Quay, GLASGOW, G2 8JB.

Group formed To protest Tiree Array

No other proposed Array in Scotland, or Europe for that matter, will have such detrimental impacts on its proximate community

Taking into consideration all aspects of Scottish Power Renewables ( SPR Iberdrola S.A.) proposed wind farm, in-shore to Tiree, and following protracted discussion with many stakeholders ,we have concluded that Tiree’s interests may be well served by the formation of a “ NO TIREE ARRAY “ campaign group.

We feel that the decision to place such an Array on the Skerryvore reef, and in-shore to Tiree, is based on commercial gain, with scant regard to the environmental, and socio-economic impacts on Tiree. Such disregard sets a very dangerous precedent for all Scottish coastal Communities.

The ‘NO TIREE ARRAY‘ campaign group is not an anti-renewables or anti-green energy campaign. On the contrary we support these aims. Tiree is faced with a so-called offshore wind farm comprising between 180 and 500 turbines, up to 180m high, as close as 5km from the shore. The impact ratios of the proposed Array are extreme. No other proposed Array in Scotland, or Europe for that matter, will have such detrimental impacts on its proximate community.

artists rendering turbine view from Sandaig

Artist rendering of view from Sandaig

Despite many requests to do so, SPR has refused, so far, to present any montages of the visual impact Tiree can expect from this Array. In most people’s minds, off-shore means out of sight is out of mind. This certainly was UK government’s intention in the 1990’s, when it began to derive its off shore legislation. The DTI has stated out of sight to be more than 24km off shore. Scottish National Heritage has stated, that such is the nature of the Scottish Seascape, the Scottish equivalent should be beyond 35Km. Scottish Power Renewables (Iberdrola S.A.), and maritime renewable energy companies in general, have acknowledged that research and development is in process, to place wind farms in deep water, away from coastal communities and the coastal environment.

OUR OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGY

  • * To persuade Scottish Power Renewables( Iberdrola S. A.) to adopt ,in full , their own R&D goals, and delay the planning process in all regards to the Tiree Array to place it, and any other proposed Array development, with similar detrimental impacts , OFF- SHORE , i.e. 35Km from the proximate community.
  • * To require all associated construction, support, maintenance, operational infrastructure, and personnel associated with any wind farm array development in waters off Tiree, be placed 35km from Tiree’s shore. We require that these operations do not, at any stage, interface and or impact in any detrimental manner, with Tiree’s unique community, culture or natural environment.
  • * To lobby developers and strategists, of any proposed or existing strategic legislation, to derive any such legislation from the community level upwards.
  • * As we expand the ‘Objective Issues ‘we will openly communicate them to all of our supporters and interested parties. This will ensure we are mutually, and consistently, well informed to secure our primary objective i.e. STOPPING the destruction of Tiree’s community, culture and natural beauty.
  • * We will consider legal action, as, when, and if appropriate.

“We do not inherit the land from our ancestors; we borrow it from our children”
All are welcome and encouraged to support us

For further Information go to www.no-tiree-array.org.uk Alternatively Contact: Karl Hughes (220070), Robert Trythall (220646), Ranald Noel-Paton (220613), Phillippe Pierrisnard

* DTI “Guidance on the Assessment of the Impact of Offshore Windfarms”

The preceding was presented to An Tirisdeach, and does not necessarily represent the views of the publisher

1 2 3 4